Nationalausgabe. Of the many critical biographies see William Witte, Schiller (1949) and Schiller and Burns (1959). Karlsschule was located in Stuttgart (a city in Württemberg) and was a rigidly disciplined academy established to train the sons of German army officers for public service. His final major treatise, Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung (1795; On naive and sentimental poetry), defines the problem of the modern ("sentimental") writer's divided consciousness. Translated by Charles E. Passage. HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON (1874–1929), Austrian poet, playwright, and essayist. (December 19, 2020). A chance meeting between Schiller and Goethe in 1794 and the ensuing exchange of letters mark the beginning of their friendship, a union of opposites that forms an inspiring chapter in the history of German letters. His parents were, Johann Kaspar Schiller, a military doctor and Elisabeth Dorothea Kodwei . During 1795 Schiller started again to write poetry. This work of historical fiction is told from the perspective of Anne Boleyn's sister Mary, who was King Henry VIII's mistress before he married Anne. Sharpe, Lesley. Hugo von Hofmannsthal was…, Friedrichs (real name, Christofes), Fritz. Early in 1790, Schiller married Charlotte von Lengefeld, also a gifted writer. ——. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German playwright, poet, physician, philosopher and historian who rose to prominence in the 18th century and is associated with the Weimer Classicism movement. ——. Late Work and Death After completing a tragic trilogy based on the Thirty Years War (the 1618–1648) war of religion between Protestants and Catholics fought mainly in Germany but involving most of the major powers in Europe) that critics have compared with the dramas of Shakespeare, Schiller's correspondence with Goethe flourished, and Schiller eventually joined Goethe in Weimar, which was known as the “German Athens” because its ruler, Karl August, had succeeded in making it a center of art and culture. During the last seventeen years of his life, Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe. © 2019 | All rights reserved. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. "Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von Witte, W. Schiller. Just as the stage had changed into a tribunal in his famous poem Die Kraniche des Ibykus, so to him true art changes into higher reality. He held this position for 10 years. 19 Dec. 2020 . His notion of beauty as play and of aesthetic semblance have been important in later discussions of aesthetics. But by means of the esthetic form man can "annihilate" the material aspects of life and triumph over transient matter. The new play was rejected, however, and when Schiller prepared a revised version with a different ending, this was rejected, too. In 1791 he turned to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant's philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon, 1954. Garland, H. B. Schiller: The Dramatic Writer. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller With its historical setting and its use of blank verse to explore a theme of love versus duty, this play would prove important to Schiller's dramatic development. His fourth play, Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien (1787; Don Carlos, infante of Spain), anticipates his later dramas in its use of blank verse and concern with historical and public themes. In his philosophical poem Das Ideal und das Leben (1795) the poet presents no clumsy didactic lesson. Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature. He initially wanted to be a clergyman and enrolled in the Latin School at Ludwigsburg in 1766. Kristin Lavransdatter (1920), a novel by Sigrid Undset. Schiller was financially desperate, but not without acquaintances. In the second year of their married life, Schiller’s health gave way under the strain of perpetual overwork. SHARPE, LESLEY "Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich Von (1759–1805) Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1991. His first three plays, Die Räuber, Die Verschwörung des Fiesko zu Genua (1783; The conspiracy of Fiesko at Genoa), and Kabale und Liebe (1784; Intrigue and love) owe much in style and spirit to the short-lived but influential avantgarde literary movement of the 1770s, the Sturm und Drang. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:, MAJOR WORKS:The Robbers (1781)Intrigue and Love (1784)Wallenstein (1800)Maria Stuart (1801)Wilhelm Tell (1804). When Schiller visited Frau von Kalb at her Weimar home in 1787 after publishing the play, he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, a dramatist and poet of growing importance, who became his close friend and collaborator in classicism. To escape from this intolerable situation, Schiller fled from Stuttgart at night and set out for Mannheim in the hope of receiving help from Heribert Baron von Dalberg, the director of the theatre that had launched his first play. Austrian physician and bacteriologist The change of focus from the domestic to the political sphere produced a play of inordinate length and a tortuous plot. Of the many critical biographies see William Witte, Schiller (1949) and Schiller and Burns (1959). . He also began work on Don Carlos, Infant von Spanien, which appeared in 1785 and in its revised form in 1787. Stahl, Ernst L. Friedrich Schiller's Drama: Theory andPractice. Born on 10 November 1759 in Marbach, in Württemberg, the only son of a low-ranking army officer, Schiller was educated from 1773 to 1780 at the military academy founded by Karl Eugen, duke of Württemberg (1728–1793). Against his parents' wishes, however, Schiller was drafted into the Karlsschule, an elite military academy, in 1773. Johann Kaspar Schiller and his wife, Dorothea. Johann Kaspar gave his son Friedrich a sound grammar school education until the age of 13 when, in deference to what amounted to a command from his despotic sovereign, he reluctantly agreed to send his boy to the Military Academy (the Karlsschule), an institution founded and personally supervised by the Duke. He was a founder of modern German literature. Philosophical studies and classical drama,, AllMusic - Biography of Friedrich von Schiller, Theatre Database - Biography of Friedrich Schiller, Friedrich Schiller - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), “Geschichte des Abfalls der vereinigten Niederlande von der spanischen Regierung”. ——. Against the wishes of the parents, who had hoped to have their son trained for the ministry, the Duke decreed that young Friedrich was to prepare for the study of law; later, however, he was allowed to transfer to medicine. Five Plays. The struggle against love is a struggle for a high goal, and it is not the love of Don Carlos for the Queen or his friendship for the Marquis of Posa that forms the crux of the play but the ideal of spiritual and national freedom. In 1795 he wrote in his Ü ber die aesthetische Erziehung des Menschen, "There is no other way to make the sensuous man rational and reasonable than by first making him esthetic." Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature, GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON (1749–1832; elevated to the nobility as von Goethe in 1782) diffuse, and romantic not only in regard to the material itself but also in regard to the poetic character of the heroine. Schiller had accepted Körner’s generous offer of hospitality and financial help in the spirit in which it was made. (December 19, 2020). Artistry dominates it at the cost of poetry. Schiller's intellectual superiority and creative passion were cause for national pride; for instance, his birthday was declared a national holiday, streets and schools were named after him, and his works were adopted as part of Germany's educational curriculum. Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805), 1802 geadelt, war ein Arzt, Dichter, Philosoph und Historiker. .", SHARPE, LESLEY "Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich Von (1759–1805) Description and history. Oxford and New York, 1967. To give him time to recuperate at leisure, two Danish patrons granted him a generous pension for three years. When the Duke heard of this visit, he sentenced the poet to a fortnight’s detention and forbade him to write any more plays. In the fragmentary drama Demetrius, Schiller unfolds a mysterious fate, revealing through his analytical dramatic technique a past crime more terrible to contemplate than any dread of the future. His publications include Poor Richard's Alma-nack (1733–1758). They had met once before, in December 1779, Blog. During this period Christian Gottfried Körner generously offered Schiller financial help and hospitality, becoming his patron and friend. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . 1759 Friedrich Schiller wird geboren 1766 1772 1773-1780 Er tritt ins Militär ein und studiert nebenbei Jura 1775 Schiller beginnt mit dem Studium der Medizin 1780 Im November erscheint die gedruckte Fassung von den Räubern, worauf am 14. Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual orientation: Straight Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. 1845). Werke und Briefe. Critic H. B. Garland believes that Wilhelm Tell is “probably Schiller's most popular play, rich in qualities which no other of his works displays in equal degree,” although, according to W. G. Moore, evaluation of the work “really rests upon a decision as to whether Schiller was predominantly a thinker, writing to present an argument about freedom, or a dramatist, presenting a case of notable conflict and a revelation of the mystery of life.” Whatever their approach, critics continue to praise Schiller's ability to control the dramatic action of Wilhelm Tell through characterization, setting, and language. New York, 1958. H…, von Gruber, Max (1853-1927) Goethe's residence in Weimar was a main reason for Schiller's move there, from Jena with his family, in 1799. ." During this time he composed Die Verschwörung des Fiesko zu Genua (1783) and Kabale und Liebe (1784). World Encyclopedia. Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller (n. 10 noiembrie 1759, Marbach am Neckar, Sfântul Imperiu Roman – d. 9 mai 1805, Weimar, Saxa-Weimar), înnobilat în anul 1802 ca Friedrich von Schiller, a fost un poet și dramaturg german, considerat unul din clasicii poeziei germane. Schiller moved to Leipzig, where he was befriended by Christian Gottfried Körner. Having endured the irksome regimentation at the academy for eight years, Schiller left to take up an appointment as an assistant medical officer to a Stuttgart regiment. NOVALIS (Friedrich Leopold von Hardenberg…, SCHLEGEL, AUGUST WILHELM VON (1767–1845), German literary critic and scholar. ." November 1759 in Marbach am Neckar ; † 9. Schiller travelled to Mannheim without the Duke’s permission in order to be present on the first night. Contemporary critics also tend to stress the philosophical underpinnings of Schiller's plays and poetry as well as the political themes in his works. ." Retrieved December 19, 2020 from August Wilhelm von Schlegel, older brother of the now more famous Fried…, Achim von Arnim Schiller's appeal has continued in part because of his association with great music, having inspired Beethoven's “Ode to Joy” and operas by Rossini and Verdi. He was born as Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller in Marbach am Neckar, W rttemberg, Holy Roman Empire. Stuttgart, 1998. I am looking for the Poem of Friedrich von Schiller " The Friendship "Georgette (4/10/2019 4:46:00 PM) Poem re valley drear, blissful sphere. ." By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The two great German poets met the following year in the house of Frau von Lengefeld (later to be Schiller's mother-in-law) in Rudolstadt. Schiller ennobles Wallenstein as a great creative statesman who bows before inexorable fate. Critics marveled at his ability to portray with immediacy and complexity human suffering and the triumph of the human spirit. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller, 1802-től von Schiller (Marbach am Neckar, 1759. november 10. Innovations in Drama Published in 1787, Don Carlos marks Schiller's break with his youthful rebellion and his movement toward German classicism. In 1787 Schiller paid a visit to his friend Frau von Kalb in Weimar, the residence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who at that time was traveling in Italy. ." ——. Schiller launched into a period of productivity that ensured his fame and social position. Art is the first step away from the bondage of the flesh into a realm where the nobility of the soul reigns. He was greatly influenced in his work by the writers he favored while in school (Rousseau, Seneca, Shakespeare, and Klopstock), the German theater, history, and ideas of natural philosophy as well as his friendship with Goethe. An early biography of Schiller is Thomas Carlyle, The Life of Friedrich Schiller (1825; 2d ed. Wallenstein. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. To her it is given To … He attended the duke's military academy, the Karlsschule, near Stuttgart for two years. His adolescence under the rule of a petty tyrant confronted Schiller with the problem of the use and abuse of power, a theme that recurs in most of his plays. The Wallenstein plays stress Schiller's view of man as a creative force, and they exhibit his concept of historical inevitability. . Professor of German, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, 1951–77. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791): This Austrian composer was hailed for his large musical output as well as his musical genius. Schiller's Sturm und Drang work, however, mellowed with age, and his later pieces are well-planned, reasoned, and articulate expressions of neoclassical ideals and philosophical exploration. The chorus, he wrote, should not be an accompaniment to the drama as in some ancient plays. Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Select another famous literary friendship and analyze in an essay how the relationship affected each writer's work, as well as how each other's work affected their relationship. In order to have the play accepted, Schiller had to prepare a stage version in which the rebellious ardour of his original text was toned down. Though Schiller's importance is now widely recognized, he was better known as Goethe's contemporary for many years. . November 1759 als einziger Sohn des Militärarztes Johann Caspar Schiller (1733-1796) und dessen Ehefrau Elisabeth Dorothea Kodweiß (1732-1802) in Marbach, Württemberg geboren. Schiller wrote his important essay in esthetics, Ü ber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung, in 1795-1796. He also collaborated with both Goethe and Schiller in Weimar. With the production of The Minister, he was recognized as one of the great masters of German drama. Early in 1790 Schiller married Charlotte von Lengefeld, a gifted writer. Christoph Martin Wieland (1733–1813): The German author wrote both the educational novel Geschichte des Agathon (1766–1767) and the romantic poem Oberon (1780). These three plays—Wallensteins Lager, Piccolomini, and Wallensteins Tod—represent Schiller's most powerful tragedy. These works assured Schiller's fame and social position. Schiller was also esteemed as an adept lyricist and theoretician whose works are informed by his conviction that the writer should strive not only to entertain, but also to instruct and improve his audience. This play reflects Schiller's interest in classical antiquity. After Johann Kaspar retired from military service, he devoted himself to horticulture and was appointed superintendent of the gardens and plantations at Ludwigsburg, the residence of Duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. German Significance Though the reverence Germany has bestowed upon Schiller might seem excessive, the cultural, artistic, and historical opinion of the country that influenced his writing during the eighteenth century helps provide an explanation. "Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller 19 Dec. 2020 . The character of Queen Elisabeth of Valois was to some extent based on that of Charlotte von Kalb, an intimate friend. National Icon Schiller's reputation as a boldly original thinker and artist was established with his controversial but highly successful first play, The Robbers. ——. More brilliantly than any of his predecessors, he revealed the power of drama and poetry in expressing a philosophy that emphasized both his idealism and his concern for human freedom. Schiller's intent in the play was to concentrate his passion for morality in a more theatrically dramatic—as opposed to reactive—fashion in order to present the tragic defeat of idealism by conspiracy and deception. A loan toward the publication of Die Räuber marked Schiller accepted and had the satisfaction of seeing Kabale und Liebe score a resounding success, but his hopes of clearing his debts and gaining a measure of financial security were doomed. Carlyle, Thomas. 1959). Weimar, 1943–. His resentment found expression in some of his early poems and especially in his first play, Die Räuber, a stirring protest against stifling convention and corruption in high places. Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller est un poète, écrivain et théoricien de l'esthétique, né le 10 novembre 1759 à Marbach am Neckar et mort le 9 mai 1805 à Weimar. Nevertheless, the first performance (Jan. 13, 1782) at the National Theatre at Mannheim created a sensation; it was a milestone in the history of the German theatre. World Encyclopedia. When the old Count Moor disowns Karl, the young man turns brigand and defies all established authority at the head of a band of outlaws, until, before long, he discovers that however corrupt the existing order may be, violence and anarchy do not offer a workable alternative and society cannot be reformed by terrorism and crime. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A man of some means, Körner was able to support Schiller during his two years’ stay in Saxony, toward the end of which Don Carlos, his first major drama in iambic pentameter, was published (1787). World Encyclopedia. Under the influence of Winckelmann's conception of the "schöne Antike," Schiller became convinced that only art can ennoble the barbarian and bring him culture. Its chorus has passages of lyrical and rhetorical magnificence. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Don Carlos was important in Schiller's dramatic development not only for its use of a historical setting but also for its employment of blank verse. In 1763, his father was appointed as a recruiting officer at Schwabisch Gmund, Germany. She had rented a simple ground-floor room to Schiller and another lieutenant. On July 20, 1794, after a meeting in Jena of a nature society of which both were honorary members, Goethe went to Schiller's house to continue a discussion on the interpretation of natural phenomena, the metamorphosis of plants, and the interrelationship or separation between idea and experience. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He gave jubilant expression to his new mood of contentment in his hymn “An die Freude” (“Ode to Joy”), which Beethoven was to use for the choral movement of his Ninth Symphony. . Although he completed other works before his death, Schiller's literary output was interrupted by illness, and he died in Weimar on May 9, 1805. Friedrich Schiller wurde am 10. The Other Boleyn Girl (2003), a novel by Philippa Gregory. Don Carlos marks a major turning point in Schiller’s development as a dramatist. It was Schiller who encouraged Goethe to continue with his work on Faust (1808, 1832) after he had abandoned the future masterpiece. Berkeley, 1978. Meantime, Schiller's conflict with the Duke of Württemberg forced him to flee Stuttgart in September 1782. Schiller, Friedrich. Friedrich Schiller was the second child of Lieut. . Gale Contextual Encyclopedia of World Literature. The hero of the play, Karl Moor, a young man of fiery spirit and abundant vitality, has led a somewhat disorderly life at the university. On one level, the work is a domestic drama concerned with the relations between the aging King Philip II of Spain, his third consort, Elizabeth of Valois, and his son by his first marriage, Don Carlos, who is in love with his stepmother. Appearing in the publication was his poem “An die Freude” (1786), which would later inspire Ludwig van Beethoven's “Ode to Joy” (from the last movement of his Ninth Symphony). 3: German Literature of the 18th and 19th Centuries, edited by August Closs (1970). Honor To Woman. Man thus becomes the creator of a pure and permanent world. During this shift, Schiller established the tradition of a new type of drama, the Ideendrama, or drama of ideas. Oxford and New York, 1991. In his influential treatise Über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen in einer Reihe von Briefen (1794; On the aesthetic education of man in a series of letters), he argues that beauty as "living form" symbolizes and helps bring about the ideal harmony of sense and spirit to which human beings aspire. Dalberg, not anxious to provoke a diplomatic incident by sheltering a deserter, kept him at arm’s length. Best Poem of Friedrich Schiller. Encyclopedia of World Biography. SCHILLER, JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH VON (1759–1805), German dramatist, poet, historian, and philosopher.